Data minimization: Key to protecting privacy and reducing harm

In this paper we discuss why data minimization is key to protecting privacy and explain how it can reduce the harm of data collection and exploitation. We then offer decision-makers, such as lawmakers, software developers, and others engaged in developing or implementing data minimization policies, guidance on applying data minimization principles in the context of addressing civil rights-related harms, curbing the negative impact of behavioral advertising, and training machine learning (ML) systems.